According to the released Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) 2010, Afghanistan has an infant mortality rate of 77 deaths per 1,000 births and neonatal mortality rate of 40 per 1000 live births, while Under 5 mortality is 97 per 1,000 live births. Whilst Afghanistan had significant progress on reduction of child mortality, it continues to bear a high burden of maternal, newborn and child deaths. Still around 40% of under five children suffer from stunting and newborn mortality is still high and care newborns require drastic improvements.
The Afghanistan Mortality Survey also indicates that significant number of under-five deaths occur during the neonatal period and more than two-thirds in the post-neonatal period within first year of life. Therefore, Newborn Care is of utmost importance in reducing neonatal and infant mortality rate in Afghanistan. While consistent   improvements have been achieved in antenatal care and skilled birth attendance coverage in the country; management of newborn and specifically sick newborns require drastic improvements. Based on the request of the Ministry of Public Health, the USAID funded BASICS project adapted integrated community based approaches to child and neonatal survival to Afghanistan, resulting in the Integrated Child Survival Package (ICSP).
Based on communities’ positive response, the ICSP approach gradual implementation in all PCH districts in 2010 under USAID fund. By September 2015, ICSP was being implemented in 54 districts. ICSP uses an integrated community based approach, which relies on increasing the community’s ownership of child survival, through promoting close collaboration between community health shuras, Family Health Action Groups (FHAG) and Community Health Workers (CHWs).
The Child Survival specialist under direct supervision of Child and Adolescent Health Department is responsible to provide technical support on implementation of ICSP in the target provinces. S/he will be responsible for overall planning, coordination pertaining ICSP and contribute to building capacity of heath care workers at facility and community levels.